Archive for the ‘Historical’ Category

Braddock’s Monument

This is part three of the Fort Necessity trip from Washington’s attack on the French force at Jumonville Glen, his defeat by the French at Fort Necessity concluding with some information about the English general Edward Braddock.  The French and Indian War lasted many years within Pennsylvania. The Delaware and Shawnee living at, what is now, Kittanning, Pennsylvania would begin launching raids of terror across Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia following the event of Braddock’s defeat.

Braddock’s Road and the marker showing where the remains were found in 1804.


Washington’s humiliating defeat at Fort Necessity had some effects on the various players of this beginning of the French And Indian war. First, the  French began to believe the English wasn’t about to be the obstacle they once believed them to be. Secondly, the various tribes of western Pennsylvania were evaluating these recent results. Most were hoping to remain neutral, but I believe most, also, realized staying out of the war of France and England would be impossible.

The English in 1755 had their best commander within America’s borders. General Edward Braddock was a military man of 45 years of service. His mission in America was to send English forces to attack the French at several forts destroying their presence in the Allegheny region. He would spearhead the attack against the French at Fort Duquesne. (Present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.) He proudly admitted his task would be easily completed. After all, he had 2400 soldiers of the great English army at his disposal. One must realize that, at this time,  England had the most powerful military in the world.

Braddock had a great flaw in character. He was an arrogant man with lots of power and he abused it.  One of the beliefs he had followed with statements once arriving in America dealt with his low opinion with the American militias. At a meeting with Delaware Chief Shingas in attendance went poorly for the general, albeit he didn’t know it and/or he just didn’t care.  He made statements that the Indian forces were no match to the powerful English army. He, also, said no Indian should have ownership of any lands. Shingas was angered! He, also, believed Indian warfare techniques of no concern.

General Braddock began to move northeasterly towards Fort Duquesne. The road had to be widened as he progressed. As he approached to around eight miles of the fort on July 9th, a sudden explosion of musketry and whooping and hollering became everywhere within the depths of the forest. The blood-curling screams of the Indians and shots from the shadows  quickly eroded the English into a mass of dead, dying and wounded men. Others ran in terror in retreat often times throwing their muskets to the ground.

The men in retreat couldn’t be changed. George Washington tried to regain control of the men. Braddock was mortally wounded. Washington had two horses shot out from under him and had four musket balls rip holes in his uniform, but he was untouched. The retreat continued. Braddock eventually died a few days later and was buried on the road so the Indians wouldn’t find and mutilate the body.


Close-up of panel

The battle began with approximately 1460 troops. Causalities were approximately 900. The Indians once they understood their victory began plundering and scalping. If the Indians would have ignored their ways of war and followed the army they would have annihilated the entire force.  Causalities for the French were around 43 men and 27 causalities for the natives.

Most Indian historians believe this rout was the determining event for the Delaware and Shawnee Indians joining allegiance with the French soldiers. Shingas lived in Kit-Han-ne and, no doubt, after this managed to persuade the others of present-day Kittanning, Pennsylvania to ally with the French. Shingas may have participated in the Braddock event as well as others from Kit-Han-Ne. History doesn’t tell us. The battle at Kit-Han-ne happened on September 8th, 1756.

Workers working on Braddock’s Road in 1804 discovered the remains believed to have been the general.  The body was moved and reinterred nearby where the present monument stands.

I can’t help to wonder what the general’s last thoughts were in those few days prior to his death. I wonder if he come off his high horse of arrogance to see the reality of Indian warfare. I guess we will never know.

General John Forbes gained the forks of the rivers from the French n 1758. The fort would be named, Fort Pitt later to be known as Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.





Read Full Post »

Fort Necessaity

I can’t say with any degree of certainty when I first heard of Fort Necessity, but I know I was only a young fellow. I was captivated to learn of this somewhat local event and to realize that the one and only George Washington was actually involved. I really didn’t have a true grasp of the importance of this time.

One sad reality for me, with hindsight, was the fact as to how little was taught about the French And Indian War in schools. I imagine few hear about this great war in today’s educational system. As in the last entry about Jumonville Glen I will not placing a complete detailed report as to everything of the times. Like I said one can discover more into this subject easily if further interested. There are books galore of this battle and the French and Indian War.

   Laurie and I finally  took time to visit the site I have had in my mind for many, many years.  We hiked around some, too  and had a private picnic lunch towards  noon way back in the woods above the site. Indians, French and English soldiers, probably, have walked exactly where we had our lunch.

Lieutenant Colonel George Washington had discovered a marshy, grassy area and allowed this as a point to work out of. Much fodder could be had for livestock.  The area would prove to be a disaster.

On May 27th, 1754, Indians reported of a French force of soldiers encamped nearby. The young Washington went through the night to encounter them in the following morning. The following morning shots were fired and the French were defeated. the French and Indian War had begun, but I doubt anyone knew just how these few shots would be remembered in history. (This event was listed in the previous entry.)

Washington realized the French would feel a need to counter-attack and removed his men back to the Great Meadows. Here earthenware trenches would be made and a quickly-erected fort of necessity was built. Hence the name of Fort Neccessity! Additional men came to the site in early to mid-June giving Washington command of over 400 men.

The fort was a small circular fort erected hastily by placing logs upright with points on the top. A small building was erected within the fort to hold gun powder, rum and other perishables. The interior circumference of this fort was about 155 feet and would only, at best, protect about fifty soldiers. Earthwork trenches, outside the fort, were built to allow soldiers to be concealed behind the ground but they were only about two feet high because the water table was reached by digging deeper.

Improvements were made at the fort whenever realizations were spotted and the wait began. The troops were exhausted and lacked a lot of food.

Washington’s force

would be outnumbered something like three to one. Incessant rains began  pounding the area. There was sickness, desertions and injuries further lessening the number of fighting soldiers, too. The site of the fort now was becoming a muddy, swamp-like bog creating many problems within. Gun powder was becoming wet making firearms impossible to shoot. Seneca Half King Tanacharison knew the fight here was a foolish venture thus he and his warriors slipped away.

  The attack from the French and allied Indians came into reality on July 3rd, 1754 as volleys were fired and positioning began. The French and allied  Indians began shooting cattle, horses and dogs, as well as, any troop  when an opportune shot arose. As time moved along, Washington realized about a third of his troop were causalities. Others became drunk because they believed their time was short. They broke into the stores of rum. Washington knew he was in a dire position. Indians would want to tear them apart once this battle reached a certain point of despair. He needed to sue for peace with the French.

Later, however, that evening the French offered discussion of a surrender and Washington agreed. A serious problem erupted  concerning the signing of the papers, but the extent would not be realized immediately. Those papers for surrender announced Washington had assassinated the French officer at Jumonville Glen. The issue came to be due to translations and the interpreter not understanding the French language as needed, but further questions came to be later on this issue. Once this was realized, and after Washington had signed the paper, the young officer denied that statement. The French would use the letter as a propaganda tool against the English.

Washington and his remaining men left the Great Meadows free on July 4th, 1754.  English General Edward Braddock would be annihilated  near this site the following July in 1755.



George Washington



Read Full Post »

Area of French encampment. This would be the view Washington would have seen upon his approach.

Western Pennsylvania is rich with history. This fact is especially accurate when one considers some eighteenth century events. Much was happening and changing beginning within the 1740 time span. A British statesman named Horace Walpole would describe an event of the time as “The volley fired by a young Virginian in the backwoods of America set the world on fire.”  That young Virginian was a man named, George Washington.

My story will be brief, but I urge anyone interested in learning all aspects of these times to further their minds. There is a treasure of information available for details.

The French began descending the Allegheny River Watershed coming south out of Canada. Their goal was to establish claim to the valuable lands west of the Allegheny Mountain range of Pennsylvania. Their secondary goal was to obtain as many Indian tribes as allies as they could. They wanted their trade with them to outgrow English trade. French officer Celeron placed messages of ownership in lead plates at various locations in 1749. (Indians would remove many of these to melt down the lead for musket balls.) Soon French forts were built at strategic locations including a fort at the forks of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers.  The fort’s name was Fort Duquesne. Today this site is Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

The Indians wanted the trade with the whites, but they did not want any established settlements. The Pennsylvania Colony believed these lands to be their lands as did Virginia. The English wanted these lands for their lands, as well.  Any potential problems here?


The French tried to escape between these rocks only to met the warriors.

Out of Virginia the Governor Robert Dinwiddie sent a twenty-one year old named George Washington  to ascend the Allegheny River area to deliver a letter to the French. The letter’s intent was to convince the French to abandon their plans. This was so important that this mission was in the winter of 1753….not the best time to be maneuvering the wilds of western Pennsylvania.

The plan failed as the French politely rejected the orders and Washington returned to Williamsburg, Virginia with their reply.

Lieutenant Colonel George Washington returned  to the area in 1754 to evict the French out of Fort Duquesne. He had a force of men with him as he established a site at what was the Great Meadows. This site had the grasses needed to help feed the livestock.

Indians reported to Washington of a French force nearby. Washington and some men along with some allied Seneca Indians under their leadership of the Half-King, Chief Tanacharison moved in to encounter the French. The French were at a location with a huge rocky outcrop that would be known as Jumonville Glen.  There was no war at this time only some friction so the French officer named Jumonville didn’t place any sentries as Washington moved in on the morning of May 28, 1754. He came to the encampment from the south. Another officer, Captain Stephen moved into position above the rock outcrop and the ten or so Indians moved in from the north.

Suddenly a shot rang out. Nobody knows who fired that first shot, but an exchange of musketry exploded. The entire skirmish lasted for about fifteen minutes in total. The French tried to escape to the north and met up with the Seneca. Jumonville shouted for a cease-fire which happened. He, while reading in French, began to convey their orders were simply to deliver a diplomacy letter to the English demanding they leave the area. However, Tanacharison who understood French stopped the reading with a tomahawk to the officers head killing him instantly.  A report states he washed his hands in the officer’s brain. The Indians began killing and scalping the wounded and prisoners. Washington had a rough time stopping the Indians from killing the surviving troops. One French soldier escaped to Fort Duquesne. The Seneca chief was getting the war he so desired.

The shot, whomever fired it, would be the one responsible for the beginning of the French and Indian war in America. There would be no turning the tides of war at this point.

The site was named after the French leader who died on site.

The French view towards Washington’s approach.

The next entry here will be of Fort Necessity and Washington’s first defeat.

Read Full Post »

So Much Going ON!


The painting



Flier for Ford City Library display.



Display at Crooked Creek event.

To say my weekend was full might be an understatement. First, my cousin called me Thursday to tell me of the passing of a dear friend. His name was Vearl “Pete” Lookabaugh. We had been friends for some forty years. He was quite a friend and I will miss him. Some issues with funeral times occurred. Friday evening I was to be at the Outdoor Discovery Center (ODC) at Crooked Creek Park. Vearl’s funeral service was only six o’clock to eight Friday evening. I would not be able to attend. A Saturday committal service was to be ten to eleven. I had commitments on Saturday, too. I needed to do some adjustments.

So, Friday I needed to remove some of my historical paintings from the Ford City Library and set them up with others at the ODC building. (The   paintings had been at the library for about a month.) After setting them up and enjoying a BBQ meal from the group I was to speak to my talking engagement began. The subject matter for my talk was through their request. the topic was about the attack at the Indian village of Kit-Han-Ne. (Present-day, Kittanning, Pennsylvania.) The group had plenty of comments and questions and I didn’t get home until after nine.

The following morning I was to be at the Armstrong County historical Society’s museum to be available for a Civil war encampment event. My task was to bring in my original acrylic painting called, “THE WHEATFIELD-WHIRLPOOL OF DEATH.”  A stated above I needed some adjustments with my time so I delivered the paining and easel to the museum early on Saturday morning before going to the library.

This painting depicts the 62nd Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry at the battle of Gettysburg called the Wheatfield. (Click on historical for my blogs and you can get some details of this battle event.)

Saturday morning continued with going to the St. Michael’s Lutheran Church where the service was to be held. Fortunately, my friend had been relocated for additional viewing.to this church. The funeral service didn’t tell this information to me. I stopped by giving my respect to the family and saying goodbye. I made it to the museum around noon or so.

   The museum encampment was a success. Both days had a stream of interested patrons. I spent much time in the museum with the Indian Room. this room is my baby so to speak. I really enjoyed talking with the people educating them about events of our native Indians. I spent some time talking with others about the painting.

The members of the 62nd living history group did an excellent job setting up the Civil war Room. If this is something you are interested in please make plans to visit the museum soon. the museum is opened on a limited time so call first.

To contact the museum call: 724-548-5707. Address is: P.O. Box 735, 300 North McKean Street, Kittanning, PA 16201.

To find out more about the local to Armstrong County area, 62nd Pennsylvania living historians group call Bob “Slim” Bowser at 724-545-1330.

My ancester, Henry Blystone. He marched under General Sherman.












Civil War Room


Native American Room


Document Room features a letter penned by George Washington.



Military Room



Read Full Post »

Fort Ligonier

I arrived at the jeep from a hike along Grove Run. I checked the time and decided to travel the six to eight miles to visit Fort Ligonier.  (Present-day, Ligonier, Pennsylvania.) I hadn’t been to the fort in over fifteen years and was anxious to see what new renovations and restorations might be present to see.

One of many pieces of artillery on site.

A brief history of the fort is in order. The timing of history here in southwestern Pennsylvania was the French and Indian War. The Pennsylvania Colony was sided with the British against the French and their Indian allies. The Delaware (Leni-Lenape) with some Shawnee in present-day Kittanning were

British “Union Jack” flag

allied with the French. Fort Ligonier was a British fort erected along the Loyalhanna Creek in 1758. At this time in the war the fort was being used as a staging site for General John Forbes. Forbes mission was to attack the French Fort Duquesne at the forks of the rivers at present-day Pittsburgh. The site would become Fort Pitt after the French evacuated their presence.

Twice the Indians beseigfed the fort and both times the attack was a failure.

The site was a pace of heavy archeological diggings in recent past. Hundreds of relics were removed in the dig and are now on display at the Fort Ligonier musem. The fort, itself, has been erected and restored when possible. Walking through the fort gives a degree of how these brave men lived their day to day existence during war times. It wasn’t easy.

The fort was abandoned in 1766 after the French and Indian War along with Pontiac’s war ended.

To see more about Fort Ligonier see: http://www.fortligonier.org



Store house


Rock outcropping on the Loyalhanna Creek side.


Old “wavy” glass window




Read Full Post »

Old Jacob with his new “peep” sight.

Most of my friends know how I enjoy hunting with the flintlock rifles.  I love the gracious flow of the wood, the character and beauty of the Pennsylvania long rifles of the eighteenth century. The last two flintlock seasons I had not done very well with my shooting abilities. I missed many deer with my flintlocks only tagging two. Last year I did not get any deer. Some of the shots I took traditionally would have been a “down-deer.” Trips to the eye doctor didn’t help despite numerous test on the eyes.  Last summer I contacted specialist about Lasik-surgery. I wasn’t a candidate. A friend suggested peep sights. I could readily see an advantage, but I wasn’t ready to place a more modern style of sight on my traditional rifle named, Old Jacob. Last year’s mishaps eventually forced a discussion with an avid flintlock shooter. (Old Jacob was a custom-made rifle of the Andrew Verner school of gun building. He lived in eastern Pennsylvania and created this style of stock. during the latter part of the seventeen-hundreds.)

I visited a friend, Curt Boal. He is the owner of a black powder shop near Fenelton, Pennsylvania. His shop is: Curt’s Blackpowder Shop. Visit: http://www.curtsblackpowdershop.com

Our discussion led me to decide to do a peep sight mounting. This morning, (April 2019) I picked up Old Jacob and I agreed with him that the sight looked good on the flinter. This peep sight is not a modern-style sight of today, but more in line with something found on an earlier rifle of the nineteenth century. The sight sets close on the barrel. I guess I can live with this. Fact is, I have to live with it or give up shooting and hunting deer.

To compensate for my feelings on this style of sight, I simply tell myself the colonial hunter would have had a peep sight if that knowledge of them would have been available.

Thank you Curt for a fine job!


Read Full Post »


I certainly do have an avid interest in history. The French and Indian War years interest me a lot since many events of this era happened in Pennsylvania and within a few miles from where I grew up.  The years for this war locally began  in 1754 and lasted to 1758 when the French abandoned Fort Duquesne in present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania allowing General Forbes to take over the fort. He renamed the fort to Fort Pitt.

Within a mile from where I live is a community called Kittanning. During this war members, primarily, of the Lenni-lenape (Delaware) and Shawnee nations took up residence launching raids across Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia. In September 1756, Lieutenant Colonel John Armstrong launched a raid upon Kit-Han-Ne. Mostly militia-style volunteers under Armstrong were involved in this attack. However, some Pennsylvania Provincial soldiers were involved. These soldiers would be dressed as shown in my painting called; IN DEFENSE.


The Indians of the time were brave warriors. The painting shown here called: IN DEFIANCE, depicts a naïve warrior defying the soldier. Eastern Indians usually wore little into battle preferring to paint themselves to aid in terrorizing the enemy. However, as cooler weather approached  clothing would be worn as needed.

These paintings were created  in 2004 and 2006.

Read Full Post »

Older Posts »